Stingray Pipeline Replaces Protection on Gas Risers in Splash Zone
Platform operator makes use of FRP and epoxy technologies for critical areas of platform -
John Miley, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America
While there are many
factors that lead to the deterioration of marine pipeline risers, the principal
cause is exterior corrosion. Operators have found ways to minimize or at least
delay corrosion, by applying exterior coatings of various types at the time of
construction, but many of these coatings have proven to be vulnerable in the
When repairs to risers become necessary, it has often been difficult to
accomplish them effectively in the splash zone. The success rate for
field-applied coatings has been very low; however, the recent introduction of a
special all-polymer encapsulation technology promises to change those
Stingray Pipeline Company, operated by Natural Gas Pipeline Company of
America, has a large gas gathering network in the West Cameron, East Cameron,
Vermilion, and Garden Banks Areas off southwest Louisiana. Several risers on
the main compressor platform at West Cameron 509 A were in need of corrosion
The original concrete and mastic coatings applied to the risers prior
to construction had failed in the splash zone. Subsequent field-applied
neoprene and mastic encasements were also in distress. To maintain the platform
in the safest, most reliable condition, with pipeline pressures that could
exceed 1,300 psi, it was imperative that an effective method for protecting the
risers be found.
Stingray Pipeline Company examined a number of repair methods before
locating a technology that had been used successfully on inland and coastal
structures, but had not yet been introduced offshore. The A-P-E Process,
supplied by Master Builders of Cleveland, Ohio (US) was selected to repair four
suction risers of varying diameters and one 36-in. Line at a manifold platform
in West Cameron 148. Stingray contracted with Mid Atlantic Diving Contractors
of Ellicott City, Maryland, to remove the remains of the old coatings and
install the new riser protection.
The bottom right photo shows a typical suction riser at the compressor
platform, prior to the recent repair work. Wave forces had torn off most of the
neoprene outer cover in the splash zone. The mastic layer beneath the outer
cover was spotty and discontinuous. The original concrete encasement was intact
up to a level just below the waterline, but had also failed in the splash zone.
The A-P-E Process began with surface preparation. The length of the
riser to be encapsulated extended from elevation +10 ft to elevation -5 ft.
Powered rotary abraders were used to remove the remnants of the previous
coatings, including some of the original concrete encasement that extended from
the waterline to the -5 ft elevation.
Final cleaning to bare metal was accomplished by grit blasting. After
the surface had been prepared, a translucent fiberglass-reinforced plastic
(FRP) outer jacket was placed around the riser. The jacket was fitted with
polymer standoffs that maintained a « in. Annulus between the riser and the
Grout injection ports were positioned at strategic points along the
length of the jacket. A seal gasket was placed in the lower end of the jacket
and the aggregate-filled epoxy grout was pumped into the annulus from the
Because of the translucent jacket, the progression of grout could be
easily monitored by the diver from outside the jacket. If any defects had been
detected, corrective action could have been taken. This ensured that the grout
column inside the encapsulation was continuous and free of water pockets or
other discontinuities. Pumping the aggregate filled grout into the jacket form
the bottom up also created a scouring effect that ensured a tight bond between
the encapsulation materials and the riser.
Another unique feature of the process is the air-operated
batcher/mixer/pump unit that handles the aggregate-filled epoxy grout by the
plural component method. With this method, the reactive components of the epoxy
grout are kept separate throughout the process and are blended together just
prior to entering the FRP jacket.
By keeping the reactive components separate, the contractor was free to
start and stop the work at any time, without concern for the set time of the
grout. Cleanup is also simplified, because the mixers, hoppers, pumps and hoses
contain only un-catalyzed materials and the use of solvents is kept to an
According to the developers of the process, the ability to add
significant amounts of inert filler to epoxy grouts has several additional
filler adds to the unit weight of the grout, causing it to displace the water
more readily and to self-level inside the jacket.
the completed encapsulation is enhanced because the aggregate filled grout has
a much lower coefficient of thermal expansion than does the pure epoxy alone.
Seasonal temperature changes should have little or no effect on the bond
between the polymer encapsulation materials and the steel substratum.
-The addition of
filler also has the added effect of reducing cost. On this project, the ratio
of aggregate to liquid epoxy components was 3.38 to 1 by weight, yet the grout
was very flowable and self-leveled in the jackets. The A-P-E grout is 100%
solids epoxy and contains no solvents to evaporate into the environment.
Two completed encapsulations weathered their first winter 98 miles offshore.
Close inspection revealed that the encapsulations were still tightly bonded and
completely sound. The encapsulations are only 1-3/8 in. Larger in diameter than
the risers, minimizing the area for wave forces to act against.
Stingray selected the A-P-E Process because it provided an economical
means to perform the encapsulation work on site, without interruption to
operations. All materials, special equipment and technical assistance were
available from a single source, and contractors, experienced with the process,
While new to the offshore scene, the process had been used successfully
for over ten years on pier, bridges and other coastal structures. It also
appeared that the research leading to its development had been extensive.
The work was completed during the summer of 1994 and the encapsulations
have weathered a winter of rough seas without evidence of distress.
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